Graphene is a single-atom thick layer of carbon atoms closely linked in a hexagonal 2D sheet. Once formed, this stuff is so strong, you couldn’t pierce through it with anything less than about 5 tons crushing down on a point the size of a pencil tip.
Creating extrusions is a process where soft(ish) materials are confined within a space, then that space is shrunk while leaving only a small opening for the material to escape
In Non-Newtonian fluids, the viscosity or “thickness” of the liquid changes when it is stressed. This means that when they’re shaken or stirred, the liquid becomes either “thinner” and flows more freely, or “thicker” and resists movement.